Essay #3. 114 (21569-!-item-!-188;#058&00114-00)(第8題錯)
Ethnohistoric documents from sixteenth-century Mexico suggesting that weaving and cooking were the most common productive activities for Aztec women may lead modern historians to underestimate the value of women's contributions to Aztec society. / Since weaving and cooking occurred mostly (but not entirely) in a domestic setting, modern historians are likely to apply to the Aztec culture the modern Western distinction between "private" and "public" production. /Thus, the ethnohistoric record conspires with Western culture to foster the view that women's production was not central to the demographic, economic, and political structures in sixteenth-century Mexico.
A closer examination of Aztec culture indicates that treating Aztec women's production in Mexico in such a manner would be a mistake. / Even if the products of women's labor did not circulate beyond the household, such products were essential to population growth. / Researchers document a tenfold increase in the population of the valley of Mexico during the previous four centuries, an increase that was crucial to the developing Aztec political economy. Population growth--which could not have occurred in the absence of successful household economy, in which women's work was essential--made possible the large-scale development of labor-intensive chinampa (ridged-field) agriculture in the southern valley of Mexico which, in turn, supported urbanization and political centralization in the Aztec capital.
But the products of women's labor did in fact circulate beyond the household. / Aztec women wove cloth, and cloth circulated through the market system, the tribute system, and the redistributive economy of the palaces. Cotton mantles served as a unit of currency in the regional market system. Quantities of woven mantles, loincloths, blouses, and skirts were paid as tribute to local lords and to imperial tax stewards and were distributed to ritual and administrative personnel, craft specialists, warriors, and other faithful servants of the state. In addition, woven articles of clothing served as markers of social status and clothing fulfilled a symbolic function in political negotiation. The cloth that was the product of women's work thus was crucial as a primary means of organizing the flow of goods and services that sustained the Aztec state.
historians沒有錯誤, 是Ethnohistoric documents會讓historians underestimate women’s contribution, 這句的功能是作者提出一個評論-position(may/underestimate)
Position: Ethnohistoric documents may lead modern historians to underestimate women's contributions
2.錯誤的原因：weaving & cooking = domestic
這裡看到be likely to作者對前句的statement推測可能理由
Elaborate: apply to the Aztec culture the modern Western distinction
conclusion: women's production was not central to
MI: treating Aztec women's production in such a manner
Elaborate: such products were essential to population growth
Evidence: Cotton mantles served as a unit of currency
Population growth made possible the large-scale development of agriculture
1.女人貢獻在women’s labor circulate beyond the household
MI: did in fact circulate beyond the household
Elaborate: cloth circulated through the market system
Evidence1: Cotton mantles served as a unit of currency
Quantities of woven mantles were paid as tribute
Evidence2: woven articles of clothing served as markers of social status
The cloth of women's work thus was crucial as a primary means of organizing the flow of goods and services
Question #8. (錯) 114-01 (21615-!-item-!-188;#058&000114-01)(一開始選b)
The author of the passage would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements about the documents mentioned in the first sentence of the passage?
(A) They contain misleading information about the kinds of productive activities Aztec women engaged in. ->違背文章內容：有提出weaving及cooking
不對, 文章沒有說documents是錯誤的, 只是說會讓人低估一些事情
(B) They overlook certain crucial activities performed by women in Aztec society. ->變換主角：overlook的是historian，不是document
(C) They provide useful information about the way that Aztec society viewed women.->第一段第一句尚未提到
(D) They are of limited value because they were heavily influenced by the bias of those who recorded them. ->文中未見
(E) They contain information that is likely to be misinterpreted by modern-day readers. ->P1.1(第一段第一句)
May = be likely to, underestimate=misinterpreted, modern historians = modern-day readers
Question #9. 114-02 (21661-!-item-!-188;#058&000114-02)
According to the passage, Aztec women's cloth production enabled Aztec society to do which of the following?
應該是考強調的第二個重點thus was crucial
(A) Expand women's role in agriculture ->文中未見
(B) Organize the flow of goods and services->P3.6(第三段第六句)
(C) Develop self-contained communities ->文中未見
(D) Hire agricultural laborers from outside the society ->文中未見
(E) Establish a higher standard of living than neighboring cultures ->文中未見
Question #10. 114-03 (21707-!-item-!-188;#058&000114-03)
Which of the following best describes the function of the third paragraph of the passage?
(A) It attempts to reconcile conflicting views presented in the previous paragraphs. ->文中未見，reconcile必錯
(B) It presents evidence intended to undermine the argument presented in the second paragraph. ->違背文章內容是支持
看不太懂以上寫法, 不過不重要, 這裡應該有兩種解法, 一是第三段應該是對第一段的評論作闡述, 另外一解釋二三段應該都是作者在講話, 不會產生undermine
(C) It provides examples that support the position taken in the first sentence of the second paragraph.
(D) It describes the contents of the documents mentioned in the first paragraph. ->文中未見
(E) It suggests that a distinction noted in the first paragraph is valid. ->文中未見
Question #11. 114-06 (21753-!-item-!-188;#058&000114-06)
The passage is primarily concerned with
(A) using modern understanding of cultural bias to challenge ethnohistoric documents ->文中未見
(B) evaluating competing descriptions of women's roles in Aztec society ->文中未見
(C) comparing the influence of gender on women's roles in Aztec society and in modern society ->文中未見
(D) remedying a potential misconception about the significance of women's roles in Aztec society
(E) applying new evidence in a reevaluation of ethnohistoric documents ->文中未見
總評: 為何上課在講義後面已經示範了最新方法而不去採用呢? 以上用的分析方式是兩年多前的舊方法, wayshawn的東西上課已經強調過不要當解答看, 我把這篇文章架構分析整理一下, 同學的句子功能了解和文章架構掌握性不夠, 建議要好好思考一下架構/句子功能/每個句子功能的目的/句子中重要資訊, 還有我把指標性字眼在文章中用紅色部分標出